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Implications for Research and Practice: Teachers are encouraged to use deep learning strategies instead of surface learning strategies. Direct strategies, known as learning the target language directly, include cognitive strategies, memory strategies, and compensation strategies. The results related to the indirect effect between variables showed that reading enjoyment had a partial mediator effect for the control strategy and had a full mediating effect for elaboration. The direct and indirect strategies of communication strategy will be discussed in this section. In conclusion, personality traits can have a direct and indirect impact on learning and their role as predictors of our students’ learning should not be discounted. 2 These two strategies are the ways of argument which influences explicit communication, it can be easily indicated by the individualistic-collectivism of Hofstede (1980) and high- or low- context of Hall (1976). Cognitive strategies, such as summarizing or reasoning deductively, allow Students examine texts they are currently studying and identify and then replace direct for indirect and vice versa. These are specific procedures that learners can use to improve their language skills. Oxford (1990a) draws a distinction between direct and indirect strategies. Direct instruction relates more to lower levels of Bloom’s taxonomy. When not to use: When objectives other than learning facts, rules, or behavior sequences are desired, direct instruction would be less efficient than inquiry or problem-solving strategies. Oxford (1990) divided vocabulary-learning strategies into two categories: Direct and indirect. Direct strategies include memorizing, analyzing, reasoning and guessing intelligently. Based on the extensive research on learning strategies (Challot - O'Malley 1994 Rubin) successful second language learners use some common learning strategies effectively. indirect and direct guidance techniques will provide you with strategies and tools to use in preventing, resolving, and correcting behaviors. She divided language learning strategies into direct strategies and indirect strategies. The high school second language learner has much in common with the "good" language learners described by … ABSTRACT: In “Language Learning Styles and Strategies,” the author synthesizes research from various parts of the world on two key variables affecting language learning: styles, i.e., the general approaches to learning a language; and strategies, the specific behaviors or thoughts learners use to enhance their language learning. Do not use if students already have a grasp of lower-level learning concepts of the topic. Activities to support the strategy Activity 1: exploring authentic texts. Direct strategies are the strategies used directly in dealing with a new language, and there are three groups that belong to the direct strategies: memory, cognitive, and compensation. It is vital in the development of reading comprehension and provides the link between spoken like language and the more formal written language. learning strategies based on the synthesis of the previous work on good language learning strategies and her classification is “the most comprehensive classification of learning strategies” (Ellis, 1994, p. 539). However, their impact cannot be considered in isolation, as divorced from motivation and the cognitive and cognitive-oriented factors identified at the outset of my discussion. Indirect guidance refers to strategies that are used in establishing a positive classroom environment including room arrangement, consistent routines, class rules, and developmental activities.

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